As a transmitting and receiving device for radios, antennas are important devices that affect signal strength and quality, and their importance in the field of mobile communications is self-evident. It is one of the basic requirements of engineers to fully grasp the basic knowledge of antennas. Today we will talk about antennas together.
As shown in the figure, the antenna converts the electrical signal transmitted by the device into electromagnetic wave transmission. The antennas are all capable of transmitting and receiving functions. In the field, there may be an antenna for receiving only (for example, a broadcast antenna).
The antenna converts the electric field into a magnetic field to form an electromagnetic wave to transmit the signal, and the reverse direction converts the magnetic field into an electric field and then transmits it to the device through the line, thereby forming a transmission and reception of the wireless signal.
- Directionality of the antenna
1) Omnidirectional: the signal radiation direction is 360 degrees;
The omnidirectional antenna used by the base station (macro station) is as shown in the figure below. The selection is determined according to the scene requirements, and one of the key parameters is used for gain.
2) Orientation: The signal radiation direction has a certain direction limitation and is concentrated in a certain direction area.
Directional antennas can concentrate signal energy in a certain direction, thus ensuring signal strength enhancement in a certain direction. Generally, directional antennas are generally used in urban or environmentally complex areas.
- Antenna gain
The general gain represents the amplification in the electronic science, but since the antenna is a passive device, ie no energy conversion, it is impossible to amplify the signal. So the gain here represents the degree of energy concentration of the signal and the efficiency of the conversion.
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